Pollution and over-exploitation of our oceans are posing ever-greater problems, such as an acute threat to biodiversity, ocean acidification and an increase in plastic waste. Besides industrial fishing and the commercial use of marine resources, climate change is placing marine ecosystems under increased pressure. A continuously growing global population will be even more dependent on marine resources in future.
Goal 14 advocates significantly reducing all kinds of marine pollution and minimising ocean acidification by 2025, as well as sustainably managing and protecting marine and coastal ecosystems by as early as 2020. It also aims, by 2020, to regulate harvesting in an effective manner and to halt overfishing by ending illegal and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices. In addition, Goal 14 aims to prohibit specific types of subsidy to fisheries.
Goal 14: Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development 14.1
14.1: By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution
14.2: By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans
14.3: Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels
14.4: By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics
14.5: By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information
14.6: By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the World Trade Organization fisheries subsidies negotiation2
14.7: By 2030, increase the economic benefits to small island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism
14.a: Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology, taking into account the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular small island developing States and least developed countries
14.b: Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets
14.c: Enhance the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by implementing international law as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources, as recalled in paragraph 158 of “The future we want”