Estados frágiles: pobreza, inestabilidad y violencia

Varias personas se protegen tumbadas detrás de un muro.
Cerca de 1500 millones de personas viven en países donde la violencia es el pan de cada día. © Laif/Redux-Stephen Ferry (Honduras, 2009)

La Organización de Cooperación y Desarrollo Económicos define la fragilidad como la combinación de una exposición al riesgo y de una capacidad insuficiente por parte de un Estado, un sistema o una comunidad para gestionar, asumir o mitigar dichos riesgos. La fragilidad se considera generalmente en sus dimensiones económica, ambiental, política, social y de seguridad.

A nivel internacional se reconoce que los países con instituciones estatales débiles o inestables, y cuya población sufre diariamente la pobreza extrema, la violencia, la corrupción y la arbitrariedad política, son clasificados como frágiles. Las estructuras estatales no pueden o no quieren garantizar las funciones básicas del Estado en el ámbito de la seguridad, del Estado de derecho y de los servicios públicos. En estos países, a menudo, no existe una relación constructiva entre las autoridades y la población.

Un obstáculo en la lucha contra la pobreza

La fragilidad de un Estado constituye uno de los mayores obstáculos para una reducción eficaz y sostenible de la pobreza. Actualmente hay en el mundo más de 40 Estados frágiles. Cerca de 1500 millones de personas viven en países y regiones frágiles, y suelen figurar entre las más pobres del mundo. A menudo, esas personas sufren, por un lado, la pobreza y, por otro, las consecuencias de los conflictos violentos.

En la última década, la comunidad internacional ha duplicado su apoyo financiero a los Estados frágiles. Los países donantes han reconocido que un entorno frágil o marcado por los conflictos puede tener consecuencias nefastas sobre la lucha contra la pobreza y la inseguridad en los países afectados. Suiza también ha reforzado su compromiso con los países y regiones frágiles, destinando el 50% de sus créditos bilaterales a las situaciones de fragilidad, de conformidad con su estrategia de cooperación 2017–2020.

Pobreza, violencia y fragilidad: un círculo vicioso

Según el Banco Mundial, los Estados frágiles presentan unas tasas de desnutrición y mortalidad infantiles que duplican a las de otros países en desarrollo. Del mismo modo, el porcentaje de niños no escolarizados y el de personas sin acceso a agua potable son respectivamente tres y dos veces superiores en los Estados frágiles.

La fragilidad, la pobreza y la violencia se refuerzan mutuamente. En estructuras estatales débiles, a menudo se produce una escalada del conflicto debido a que ya no se pueden garantizar los servicios sociales, económicos y jurídicos básicos, ni la seguridad. La creación de instituciones legítimas y el desarrollo de una sociedad civil activa pueden contribuir a romper este círculo vicioso.

Los Pioneros para sociedades pacíficas, justas e inclusivas

Al formular la Agenda 2030 para el desarrollo sostenible, los líderes mundiales expresaron su determinación de «fomentar sociedades pacíficas, justas e inclusivas, libres del miedo y la violencia». Se marcaron objetivos ambiciosos para reducir la violencia en todos los países, garantizar el acceso a la justicia para todos y crear instituciones eficaces, transparentes e inclusivas.

Suiza forma parte de un grupo de Estados miembros de las Naciones Unidas, organizaciones y alianzas internacionales, y otras partes interesadas, conocido como «Los pioneros para sociedades pacíficas, justas e inclusivas», que se dedica a acelerar el logro del objetivo 16 mediante mejoras significativas en la paz, la justicia y la inclusión.

Proyectos actuales

Objeto 1 – 12 de 1107

Improving farm productivity in Georgia through dual vocational education and training

01.09.2018 - 31.08.2022

Agriculture is Georgia's most important sector. However, farming remains uncompetitive as farmers' skills are out of step with the job market and technological developments. Switzerland is continuing to support vocational education and training to improve productivity, farm income and the employment situation for students of agriculture.

Región/País Tema Período Presupuesto
Georgia
Vocational training
Agriculture & food security
Employment & economic development
Vocational training
Agricultural services & market
Rural development
EDUCATION
AGRICULTURE
OTHER MULTISECTOR
Vocational training
Agricultural services
Rural development

01.09.2018 - 31.08.2022


CHF 6'352'000



Improved Healthcare in Hospitals in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh

15.05.2018 - 30.09.2019

Since August 2017, over 700,000 Rohingyas have fled to Bangladesh to escape violence in Myanmar's Rakhine state. Together with refugees who fled during previous crises, some 900,000 refugees from Myanmar are currently living in Cox's Bazar district in southern Bangladesh. The region's three hospitals have been unable to cope with the enormous increase in the number of refugees.  Swiss Humanitarian Aid is helping to upgrade the hospitals' infrastructure and providing training in laboratory analysis and logistics.

Región/País Tema Período Presupuesto
Bangladesh
Health
Medical services
Health systems strengthening
HEALTH
HEALTH
Medical services
Health policy and administrative management

15.05.2018 - 30.09.2019


CHF 200'000



Mozambique: Less illness thanks to better water supplies and sanitation

01.01.2018 - 31.12.2021

Many cases of illness in the poor region of northern Mozambique are caused by the poor condition of water supplies and sanitation.  The SDC is assisting the efforts of the local people and responsible authorities to improve the situation. Aim of the project: Better living conditions for half a million people – and less poverty.

Región/País Tema Período Presupuesto
Mozambique
Salud
Fortalecimiento del sistema sanitario
SALUD
Política sanitaria y gestión administrativa

01.01.2018 - 31.12.2021


CHF 7'445'000



Capacity building for Serbian municipalities

01.01.2018 - 31.12.2021

Switzerland is supporting the Serbian government’s public administration reform, which aims to make it more effective and accessible to both citizens and the private sector. SwissPRO project is being run in 99 municipalities (two-thirds of Serbia) to improve good governance, social inclusion and gender equality.

Región/País Tema Período Presupuesto
Serbia
Governance
Human rights
Gender
Decentralisation
Human rights (incl. Women's rights)
Women’s equality organisations and institutions
GOVERNMENT AND CIVIL SOCIETY
GOVERNMENT AND CIVIL SOCIETY
GOVERNMENT AND CIVIL SOCIETY
Decentralisation and support to subnational government (incl. accountability)
Human rights
Women's equality organisations and institutions

01.01.2018 - 31.12.2021


CHF 7'000'000



Decentralization and Municipal Support in Kosovo (DEMOS)

01.01.2018 - 31.12.2021

Since the declaration of independence in 2008, Kosovo has been engaged in the reform and decentralisation of its public authorities with the aim of strengthening autonomy and local democracy in its 38 municipalities. The SDC's “Decentralisation and Municipal Support” project (DEMOS) aims to help municipalities enhance democratic governance and municipal management and provide better public services, thereby supporting Kosovo in its transition to a democratic and decentralised state.

Región/País Tema Período Presupuesto
Kosovo
Governance
Decentralisation
Democratic participation and civil society
GOVERNMENT AND CIVIL SOCIETY
GOVERNMENT AND CIVIL SOCIETY
Decentralisation and support to subnational government (incl. accountability)
Democratic participation and civil society

01.01.2018 - 31.12.2021


CHF 12'800'000



Bosnia and Herzegovina: Improving nursing care for better health services

01.12.2017 - 30.11.2021

In Bosnia and Herzegovina nurses make up the largest group of healthcare professionals. However, the potential offered by their proximity to local communities is underexploited. They are often responsible for administrative tasks rather than patient care and, with limited career prospects, many nurses are attracted by better working conditions in Western Europe. This is regrettable because nurses and the care they provide can be a gateway to better health services for people living in rural areas and marginalised communities.

Región/País Tema Período Presupuesto
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Health
Education
Health systems strengthening
Primary health care
Education facilities and training
HEALTH
HEALTH
EDUCATION
Health policy and administrative management
Basic health care
Education facilities and training

01.12.2017 - 30.11.2021


CHF 5'125'000



Improved Access to Markets for Female and Male Fresh Fruits and Vegetable (FFV) Small Scale Producers

01.12.2017 - 30.11.2021

With focus on private sector-led agriculture and agribusiness, this program pursues systemic change in the agriculture sector and supports business modalities that favor small scale producers in the occupied Palestinian territory. The overall goal is to contribute to build a resilient economy with equitable agricultural growth, whilst contributing to protect small scale producers’ entitlements to natural resources and access to markets.

Región/País Tema Período Presupuesto
Palestinian Authority
Agriculture & food security
Agricultural development
Agricultural services & market
Agricultural policy
AGRICULTURE
AGRICULTURE
AGRICULTURE
Agricultural development
Agricultural services
Agricultural policy and administrative management

01.12.2017 - 30.11.2021


CHF 3'900'000



Revitalising labour market in Moldova

01.12.2017 - 31.12.2021

With Moldova facing high unemployment and a slowdown in growth, the SDC is funding a project designed to offer young job seekers alternatives to emigration and to improve the country's economic situation. Switzerland is supporting reforms aimed at training a qualified workforce and improving the investment climate. This will not only promote demand-driven training but also help create new jobs in the private sector.

Región/País Tema Período Presupuesto
Moldova
Vocational training
Vocational training
EDUCATION
Vocational training

01.12.2017 - 31.12.2021


CHF 5'350'000



Reducing youth unemployment in Kosovo with the help of the private sector

16.11.2017 - 15.11.2021

The Promoting Private Sector Employment (PPSE) project is strengthening companies in the food and tourism sectors and spurring job creation in Kosovo.

Región/País Tema Período Presupuesto
Kosovo
Employment & economic development
SME development
INDUSTRY, MINING, CONSTRUCTION
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) development

16.11.2017 - 15.11.2021


CHF 7'320'000



A more inclusive job market for women in the South Caucasus

01.11.2017 - 31.07.2021

In the three countries of the South Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia), many women face job market discrimination. In the absence of policy to create equal opportunities and jobs for women in the formal economy, women work unprotected in the informal sector. The Women’s Economic Empowerment in the South Caucasus project seeks to promote women's economic empowerment to facilitate their equal access to employment and entrepreneurial opportunities.

Región/País Tema Período Presupuesto
South Caucasus
Gender
Vocational training
Women’s equality organisations and institutions
Vocational training
GOVERNMENT AND CIVIL SOCIETY
EDUCATION
Women's equality organisations and institutions
Vocational training

01.11.2017 - 31.07.2021


CHF 3'400'000



A toolbox for sustainable sefl-reliance

06.09.2017 - 30.06.2021

Haiti has been repeatedly devastated by earthquakes and hurricanes in recent years. SDC engineers are now working with those affected to build more stable houses from local materials. Five hundred new homes are to be built by 2021.

Región/País Tema Período Presupuesto
Haiti
Climate change and environment
Vocational training
Governance
Disaster risk reduction DRR
Vocational training
Public sector policy
DISASTER PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS
EDUCATION
GOVERNMENT AND CIVIL SOCIETY
Disaster prevention and preparedness
Vocational training
Public sector policy and administrative management

06.09.2017 - 30.06.2021


CHF 3'423'500



Support to Municipal Development Project (MDP-3)

01.09.2017 - 31.12.2021

Since 2009, the Municipal Development Project (MDP) has been the main vehicle for policy reform in the Local Governance sector in the oPt. It has channelled funding to Municipalities to support infrastructure projects and capacity-building activities in a transparent and equitable manner, despite huge challenges linked to 50 years of Israeli Occupation and to 10 years of intra-Palestinian divide. MDP-3 (2017-2021) is supported by 7 donors and the Palestinian Authority: SDC’s contribution is in line with Swiss Cooperation Strategy for the oPt (2015-2018).

Región/País Tema Período Presupuesto
Palestinian Authority
Governance
Decentralisation
Democratic participation and civil society
GOVERNMENT AND CIVIL SOCIETY
GOVERNMENT AND CIVIL SOCIETY
Decentralisation and support to subnational government (incl. accountability)
Democratic participation and civil society

01.09.2017 - 31.12.2021


CHF 5'300'000


Objeto 1 – 12 de 1107