SanMarkS - Scaling up Sanitation Mar-ket Systems in Bangladesh
Using favourable conditions in Bangladesh, Switzerland will scale-up a market system approach to sanitation by leveraging the private sector. SanMarkS phase-2 will improve the health, livelihoods, dignity and wellbeing of 4.5 million rural people in 35 project districts through the use of improved sanitation services. The successful approach to be scaled up entails strengthening private supply chains for sanitation products and services, stimulating consumer demand and creating an enabling environment for service delivery.
Employment & economic development
Business support & economic inclusion
- United Nations Children’s Fund
|Background||In rural Bangladesh, households’ access to sanitation has significantly improved over the last 20 years, and the practice of open defecation drastically decreased. However, more than half of the rural population does not have access to improved sanitation. The Government of Bangladesh has recognized the importance of increasing access to sanitation by the poor and other marginalized groups, who are disproportionally affected by the lack of hygiene associated with poor sanitation. In addition to increasing access to basic sanitation, Bangladesh wants to address the SDG 6.2 challenge of raising access to safely managed sanitation, whereby excreta is safely managed i.e. treated and/or disposed of safely. Under-five mortality rate of 46/1,000, and the prevalence of stunting (36%) and diarrhoea (6%) among children under five years of age are still unacceptably high for Bangladesh. Quality sanitation impacts not only on health at the individual, household, and community level, but also has impacts on food security, dignity and well-being. Unimproved sanitation is costing the economy of Bangladesh BDT 295 Billion (US$4.2 billion) per year in losses. This is equivalent to almost 1.5 percent of Bangladesh’ current gross national product (GNP) in 2018. The impact of poor sanitation and hygiene disproportionally affects women and girls. Large sanitation infrastructure programmes in Bangladesh normally target urban areas, where the public health situation is perceived to be more acute than in rural areas. Most international development partners who are working on sanitation market system programmes focus on urban areas, leaving a need for a rural-focused programme. Based on current trends, 53 per cent of the population equivalent to 14.85 million households won’t have access to a safely managed sanitation service in 2030.|
|Objectives||The overall goal of the project is to improve the health and wellbeing of 4.5 Million people living in 1 Million households, particularly women, children and youth, across 35 districts through the increased demand for, and equitable use of, quality sanitation facilities and services.|
|Target groups||The main direct beneficiaries of this project will be the 4.5 million people within 1 million rural households (60% poor, 40% disadvantaged), particularly women, children and youth in the selected 35 districts across Bangladesh. The project sub-districts (upazilas) and unions will be finalized in the inception phase, primarily based on the hard-to-reach areas, prevailing poverty levels, the rates of open defecation and that of unimproved sanitation.|
Outcome 1: Use of services - Rural household demand for and use of improved sanitation products increases;
Outcome 2: Service delivery - Private service providers sustainably offer a variety of affordable sanitation services;
Outcome 3: Enabling environment - National and local government effectively utilize and facilitate market-based solutions for sanitation.
Output 1.1: By 2024, at least 1.2 million improved toilet facilities are sold;
Output 1.2: By 2024, at least 5 A2Fs providers are providing sanitation loans and financial services to households;
Output 2.1: By 2024, at least 3,000 latrine producers provide improved sanitation services to poor and disadvantaged households in 35 districts;
Output 2.2: By 2024, 30 Sanitation Business Association are established in project working districts;
Output 2.3: By 2024, at least 5 A2Fs are providing loan and financial services to latrine producers and Sanitation Business Associations;
Output 2.4: By 2024, at least 3 lead firms are providing sanitation product and services targeting rural consumers;
Output 3: By 2024, GoB approved and implemented a revised WASH policy, strategies that reflects a pro-poor market-based sanitation strategy for inclusion in the revised Sector Development Plans (SDP).
Results from previous phases:
- Over 160,000 improved latrines were sold to individual households and installed which is 178 percent of the total planned target. The households directly invested USD 2.7 million to purchase these improved latrines;
- 502 local latrine producers (483 men, 93 women) are trained on improved products, business development and marketing techniques. They were linked with commercial supply chains of national firm, continue to sell and construct improved toilets and many of them are organized by forming business associations;
- Increased willingness of the local Government Institutions, NGOs, Civil Society organizations and other sector actors to implement smart subsidies in sanitation (over USD $555,602 invested to date);
- The National Sanitation Marketing Guidelines developed and endorsed by the Department of Public Health Engineering;
- Winning of P3 Impact Award by Concordia, the University of Virginia Darden School Institute for Business in Society, and the U.S. Department of State’s Office of Global Partnerships to recognize and honor leading public-private partnerships (P3s) in SanMarkS.
|Directorate/federal office responsible||
SDC contribution to UNICEF (Lead Donor); UNICEF will contract iDE as implementing agency.
|Coordination with other projects and actors||SDC-funded projects on local governance and on water and sanitation. UNICEF supported projects in water, sanitation, hygiene with Local Government. Also synergies with the upcoming World Bank supported sanitation programme and the Palli Karma-Sahayak Foundation’s own financing programme on sanitation development loan offer for rural producer and consumer.|
|Budget||Current phase Swiss budget CHF 6’050’000 Swiss disbursement to date CHF 4’700’000|
|Project phases||Phase 2 20.12.2019 - 30.11.2024 (Current phase) Phase 1 01.05.2015 - 31.10.2019 (Completed)|