Advancing Land Use Rights
Competition for land in Mozambique is sharply increasing. Despite favourable land legislation for the protection of interests and rights of the local communities the concretization of these rights is still precarious. SDC’s program supports the realization of these community rights to land and its benefits through institutional development, strengthening dialogue and practical collaboration between local government, civil society and private sector in order to contribute to a more inclusive and sustainable development.
Democratic participation and civil society
Legal and judicial development
- Formalization of rights to land of 900 communities, small commercial farmers and community associations including the establishment of links of formally registered land holders and potential investors.
- Community consultations for awarding land titles to investors conducted according to the law and 200 Communities in Cabo Delgado, Niassa and Nampula supported in the negotiation with private Sector stakeholders on issues related to inclusive business models and resettlement plans.
- Collaborative evidence-based research influences policy debate on land and natural resources and result in improved and multidisciplinary response from the supply side.
- Local government officials, district judges and public prosecutors trained to work in the promotion and protection of community rights at courts 60 Community Development funds are operational and communities benefit from extractive industries projects.
- A total of 373 community/association land delimitations/demarcations carried out benefitting 1.1 Mio. Persons and affecting 3.8 million hectares.
- More than 281 small agriculture associations legalized their organization.
- Tax revenues (20%) on natural resources exploitation are channelled back to 44 local communities.
- Community agreements with large companies in 14 significant cases and improved resettlement conditions for 19 communities.
- Petroleum and Mining law approved in 2014 obliges companies to establish agreements with local communities on participation and benefits of natural ressource exploitation
- Massive land titling initiative of government also involves community land titling and ProSavana aims to shift from a monoculture approach to more sustainable famliy oriented production systems.
Out of 80 million hectares of Mozambique’s land only about 3–5 per cent of it is thought to be formally registered. Land is the central resource for small-scale subsistence farmers but also for the extractive industry and the development of the country’s growth corridors. Despite limited progress on the ground of the so-called large scale projects in the growth Corridors, the Government still sees this type of initiatives as key entry point to tackle rural poverty. This despite the fact that most of those projects had little impact with regards to rural poverty reduction. In the same line the current Mozambican Government declared land management and administration as a priority with the objective of massive and universal land titling. These Government intentions can however only be successful if they are accompanied by social processes including the community’s needs and priorities and as part of a process of building the institutions supporting an equitable, sustainable, legal and market based land tenure system. It is expected that the country will continue its path as one of the major destinations of investments for the extractive industry and agribusiness thus pressure on land will thus sharply increase. Economic investments present an important opportunity for the development of rural communities. Increased competition for land might however also cause additional problems such as involuntary displacement, resettlement, erosion of former livelihoods and conflict. The program tackles both risks and opportunities of increased investments through targeted support to the demand and supply side and fostering improved dialogue and collaboration with the private sector.
 Also referred to as mega-projects such as ProSavana (extensive commercial farming and agribusiness), Green Resources Mozambique and Portucel (forestry plantations) but including other big non-natural resources extraction based investments such as Mozal project in Matola- Maputo province (aluminium melting)
|Objectives||The overall objective of the program is to foster equitable and accountable socio-economic development in a conflict sensitive manner through advancing land use rights and access to benefits from natural resources management for rural communities.|
|Target groups||The main target groups are communities at local level, Government at local and central level, private sector and service providers working inland and natural resources management. Research and advocacy activities also address the academic circles and the general public.|
OUTCOME 1 - Land-Tenure Security: Socially prepared community land-use delimitations in alignment with district planning processes enable more profitable and inclusive investments which benefit rural communities.
OUTCOME 2 - Inclusive use of land and natural resources: In zones where competition is strong for land and natural resources, companies seeking access to these resources reach agreements with communities which contribute to gender equity and fair investments for all.
OUTCOME 3 - Research and Policy Debate: Evidence-based public discourse surrounding field level experience with adequacy of the legal framework and policies on land and natural resources and their links with rural development.
OUTCOME 4 – Accountable use of land and natural resources: Possibilities provided by the law for communities to benefit from investments in the context of land and natural resources exploitations are made concrete.
Inclusive use of land and natural resources:
Research and Policy debate
Accountable use of Land and Natural Resources:
Results from previous phases:
Inclusive use of land and natural resources:
Research and Policy Debate
|Directorate/federal office responsible||
International or foreign NGO
|Coordination with other projects and actors||
With SDC Programmes: Local governance Monitoring Initiative, Inovagro, Hortisempre
With the Government: Ministries of land, of Agriculture and of Justice
With other donors: Netherlands, Sweden, DFID, Oxfam, World Bank
|Budget||Current phase Swiss budget CHF 9'500'000 Swiss disbursement to date CHF 5'263'550|
|Project phases||Phase 3 01.01.2018 - 31.12.2021 (Current phase) Phase 2 01.05.2014 - 31.12.2017 (Completed) Phase 1 01.11.2010 - 30.04.2014 (Completed)|