Nepal officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, landlocked country in South Asia. It is located mainly in the Himalayas, but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south, east. Nepal is a multiethnic country with Nepali as the official language.
Historically, for over 200 years, Nepal was an independent state led by royal families. In 1990 Nepal became a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarchy. However, frequent government changes, inter-party conflicts, wide-spread corruption, slow implementation of important political changes, and the manifestation of armed conflict shaped the political landscape. The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015.
Nepal is governed according to the Constitution of Nepal, which came into effect on 20 September 2015, affirming Nepal as a secular federal parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces. It defines Nepal as having multi-ethnic, multi-lingual, multi-religious, multi-cultural characteristics with common aspirations of people living in diverse geographical regions, and being committed to and united by a bond of allegiance to the national independence, territorial integrity, national interest, and prosperity of Nepal. All Nepali people collectively constitute the state.
The Government of Nepal comprises three branches: Executive, Legislative and Judiciary.