This paper has two parts. The focus of the first part is on building healthy and resilient cities in Vietnam. The economic transformation of Viet Nam in recent decades has resulted in rapid urbanization, with expanded towns and cities placing much stress on public service provision, ecologies and the environment. This part has been jointly prepared by consultants working with the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the German Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). It reflects the experience gained by both organizations during their long years of operating in the urban environment sector together with the Government of Viet Nam. The second part of the paper builds on the first part. The focus is Vietnam’s cities, and the regions surrounding them, are growing quickly, bringing many benefits but also leading to new and increased risks of exposure to natural disasters and environmental change. These developments, combined with international economic and environmental trends, have led to the emergence of new challenges that in turn need structural changes to administrative and management systems. This part of the chapter examines two trends, firstly, rapid urbanization and changes to settlement patterns and, secondly, the risks associated with climate change and the increasing frequency of natural disasters.
Cuốn sách chuyên khảo “Ứng phó với biến đổi khí hậu ở Việt Nam” là một trong những nội dung hợp tác giữa Ủy ban Khoa học, Công nghệ và Môi trường của Quốc hội với Tổ chức Hợp tác Phát triển Đức. Cuốn sách được xây dựng trên cơ sở kết quả nghiên cứu khoa học và hoạt động giám sát chuyên đề của Ủy ban thường vụ Quốc hội, Ủy ban Khoa học, Công nghệ và Môi trường trong lĩnh vực ứng phó với biến đổi khí hậu cũng như các nghiên cứu của các chuyên gia, các nhà khoa học trong nước và quốc tế. Mục tiêu của cuốn sách muốn giới thiệu đến những người quan tâm, tìm hiểu về ứng phó với biến đổi khí hậu. Chúng tôi hy vọng cuốn sách sẽ là tài liệu tham khảo tốt cho quý độc giả, các vị đại biểu Quốc hội, các đại biểu hội đồng nhân dân các cấp, các nhà quản lý, các nhà khoa học.
Vietnam has experienced an impressive development transformation. The "Doi moi" course initiated in 1986 has successfully transformed the country from one of the poorest in the world to lower middle-income status. Average per capita incomes more than doubled from 2000 to 2014, placing Vietnam amongst the fastest growing developing economies with the most impressive poverty reduction record in the world. Robust economic growth was supported by sound macroeconomic and pro-growth expenditure policies. The previous phase of reforms has resulted in significant achievements in public financial management, including: (a) establishing and maintaining a system of aggregate and detailed fiscal controls, which are similar to those which many other countries use to maintain basic fiscal discipline; (b) implementing a wide-ranging decentralization of public finance, enhancing autonomy given to local governments as well as spending units, both administrative and public service delivery ones; (c) increasing fiscal transparency and accountability on the basis of mutual accountability between executive and legislative branches with the support of audit institutions and the judicial system.
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Viet Nam is one of the countries most seriously affected by climate change. During the last decade, in parallel with the rapid economic growth, the Party, government, National Congress and society has given high priority to improving environmental sanitation, flood proofing and drainage for adaptation to climate change, especially in coastal cities and low-lying delta areas. The government has made significant investments in drainage and sewerage systems in coastal provinces in Vietnam, however, much more investment is required to meet needs in the provinces. In this context, the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH and the Administration of Technical Infrastructure (ATI) - Ministry of Construction (MoC) of Vietnam carry out two programmes on urban resilience: the Wastewater Management Programme and the Programme “Flood Proofing and Drainage for Medium-sized Coastal Cities in Vietnam for Adaptation to Climate Change”. They are both technical cooperation projects between the Vietnamese and German Governments aiming at the improvement of capacities of national and local authorities as well as the urban population to improve resilience and adapt to urban flooding in the course of climate change. In addition to the national level, the programmes are implemented in 13 provinces of Vietnam, namely: Bac Ninh, Hai Duong, Nghe An, Tra Vinh, Soc Trang, Can Tho, Son La, Hoa Binh, Lang Son, Quang Ngai, Binh Dinh, Phu Yen and Khanh Hoa. ATI/MoC and GIZ are pleased to present to you the report on Resilient Cities in Viet Nam: A Guide for Planning Urban Environment Programs. The report reflects the experience gained during long years of operating in the urban environment sector together. We trust that the readers and participants of the Programme will find this report valuable to refer to in their daily work.
This report covers all aspects of the Vietnamese public financial management system: how the budget is set, including the role of the National Assembly, how revenue is raised, how money is spent, how it is accounted for and audited. This assessment report is based on the Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability assessment framework (or “PEFA”) developed by the World Bank in collaboration with other development partners, both countries and international institutions. By now, comparable assessments have been made of public financial management systems of well over one hundred countries around the world. This report is resulted from a process of self-assessment led by the Ministry of Finance, under the guidance from the PEFA Secretariat and support from the World Bank and other Development Partners. This is a progressive approach that reflects the ownership and initiation of all related Government agencies. In order to ensure quality, the results of the self-assessment were then the subject of a rigorous review by a team assembled by the World Bank, in the course of which all the evidence was re-examined in discussion with the Government’s Working Group. In addition information was sought from the Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry and major auditing firms. The draft report was subjected to quality review by the PEFA Secretariat and peer reviewers appointed by the World Bank, and discussed at a workshop with the principal Vietnamese stakeholders.