Intelligence and Security Sector Reform

At the core of this project is to improve the accountability of the state and enhance the division of the executive, legislative and judiciary powers in line with the democratic governance priorities of the Swiss Cooperation Programme in North Macedonia. It focuses on supporting the intelligence and security sector actors to become more transparent and accountable towards parliament, the judiciary and citizens at large, through new and improved existing legal framework, enhanced policy-making and capacity building.

Land/Region Thema Periode Budget
Konflikt & Fragilität
Weiterentwicklung von Recht und Rechtsprechung
Steuerung und Reform der Sicherheitssysteme
01.04.2021 - 31.03.2026
CHF  1’000’000
Hintergrund North Macedonia has long been struggling with insufficient accountability and transparency of the state institutions. This has been also the case with the intelligence and the security sector. Current efforts to reform the intelligence and security services commenced after the so-called wire-tapping scandal from 2015 when it became public knowledge that over 20’000 citizens and politicians were illegally wire tapped for political gain. The European Commission defined interception of communications, judiciary and prosecution services, and external oversight bodies as three main areas where urgent action was most needed.1 Against this backdrop, in 2017 the Geneva Center for Security Sector Governance (DCAF) was asked by the national authorities to design and implement a three-year Intelligence Sector Reform Programme cofounded by the Netherlands, Sweden, UK and Switzerland. Although significant results have been achieved so far, sustaining institutional and policy achievements requires further efforts to amend existing and develop new intelligence oversight legislation and rules of procedure and to further build implementation capacities.
Ziele Intelligence and security services in North Macedonia function effectively under active democratic control and oversight.
  • Security and Intelligence Services
  • Operational Technical Agency
  • Directorate for Security of Classified Information
  • Academy for Judges and Public Prosecutors
  • Parliament
  • Civil Society
Mittelfristige Wirkungen

Outcome 1: The legal and institutional framework of the intelligence and security sector is aligned with relevant Euro-Atlantic principles and good practice and respect of human rights.

Outcome 2: External oversight bodies (parliamentary committees, Council for Civilian Supervision, judiciary) conduct effective and transparent oversight and control over intelligence sector activities.

Outcome 3: Increased trust of the citizens in the security institutions


Erwartete Resultate:  

  • Oversight communication strategies and procedures are developed.
  • Recommendations submitted to Parliament and Government on drafts and amendments to relevant intelligence sector legislation.
  • Judicial authorization of communication interception is optimized.
  • External oversight and control bodies have improved knowledge and capacity to conduct effective and transparent oversight.
  • Citizens are better informed and actively participate in oversight procedures.

Resultate von früheren Phasen:   Significant results have been achieved through the adoption of new legislation and establishment of new institutional structures. Still further improvement is needed because: a) MPs need further capacity building to conduct security and intelligence sector oversight; b) Legal framework needs improvement to ensure adequate operation of the security and intelligence sector; c) The judiciary needs further training for appropriate use of special investigative measures; d) Citizens need to be better informed about the competencies of the authorities regarding security and intelligence related practices.

Verantwortliche Direktion/Bundesamt DEZA
Projektpartner Vertragspartner
Andere internationale Organisation
  • Genfer Zentrum für demokratische Kontrolle der Streitkräfte

Andere Partner
Koordination mit anderen Projekten und Akteuren

-    Swiss funded Parliament Support Project

-    Embassy of United Kingdom

-    Embassy of Sweden / SIDA

-    Embassy of The Netherlands

Budget Laufende Phase Schweizer Beitrag CHF    1’000’000 Bereits ausgegebenes Schweizer Budget CHF    900’000 Projekttotal seit Anfangsphase Budget inklusive Projektpartner CHF   2’434’365
Projektphasen Phase 1 01.04.2021 - 31.03.2026   (Laufende Phase)